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Wikipedia Summary for Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein ( EYEN-styne; German: [ˈalbɛʁt ˈʔaɪnʃtaɪn]; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity, but he also made important contributions to the development of the theory of quantum mechanics. Relativity and quantum mechanics are together the two pillars of modern physics. His mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which arises from relativity theory, has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation".

His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. His intellectual achievements and originality resulted in "Einstein" becoming synonymous with "genius". In 1905, a year sometimes described as his annus mirabilis ('miracle year'), Einstein published four groundbreaking papers. These outlined the theory of the photoelectric effect, explained Brownian motion, introduced special relativity, and demonstrated mass-energy equivalence.

Einstein thought that the laws of classical mechanics could no longer be reconciled with those of the electromagnetic field, which led him to develop his special theory of relativity. He then extended the theory to gravitational fields; he published a paper on general relativity in 1916, introducing his theory of gravitation. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe.

He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light and the quantum theory of radiation, which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. However, for much of the later part of his career, he worked on two ultimately unsuccessful endeavors. First, despite his great contributions to quantum mechanics, he opposed what it evolved into, objecting that nature "does not play dice". Second, he attempted to devise a unified field theory by generalizing his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism. As a result, he became increasingly isolated from the mainstream of modern physics.

Einstein was born in the German Empire, but moved to Switzerland in 1895, forsaking his German citizenship (as a subject of the Kingdom of Württemberg) the following year. In 1897, at the age of 17, he enrolled in the mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Swiss Federal polytechnic school (later renamed as ETH Zurich) in Zürich, graduating in 1900. In 1901 he acquired Swiss citizenship, which he kept for the rest of his life, and in 1903 he secured a permanent position at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. In 1905, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich. In 1914, Einstein moved to Berlin in order to join the Prussian Academy of Sciences and the Humboldt University of Berlin. In 1917, Einstein became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics; he also became a German citizen again – Prussian this time.

In 1933, while Einstein was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power. Einstein did not return to Germany because he objected to the policies of the newly elected Nazi-led government. He settled in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential German nuclear weapons program and recommending that the US begin similar research. Einstein supported the Allies, but generally denounced the idea of nuclear weapons.

photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Everything should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The framing of a problem is often far more essential than its solution.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Each possession I own is but a stone around my neck.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

One definition of insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The only way to escape the personal corruption of praise is to go on working.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good as dead; his eyes are closed.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Out of complexity, find simplicity.

--Albert Einstein

photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The most important tool of the theoretical physicist is his wastebasket.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The payment of the worker is not determined by the value of his product.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Failing isn't bad when you learn what not to do.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

That man is here for the sake of other men -- above all for those upon whose smiles and well-being our own happiness depends.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Only a life lived for others is a life worth living.

--Albert Einstein

Longer Version:

Only a life lived for others is a life worthwhile . I have no special gift. I am only passionately curious . I want to know God's thoughts... all the rest are details. Joy in looking and comprehending is nature's most beautiful gift. It's not that I'm so smart , it's just that I stay with problems longer.


photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again, but expecting different results.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

A model should be as simple as it can be but no simpler.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The really valuable method of thought to arrive at a logically coherent system is intuition.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The principal art of the teacher is to awaken the joy in creation and knowledge.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The man who regards his own life and that of his fellow creatures as meaningless, is not merely unfortunate, but almost disqualified for life.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

I like to think that the moon is there even if I am not looking at it.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

There are two things that are infinite, the universe and man's stupidity and I am not sure about the universe.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The person who follows the crowd will usually go no further than the crowd.

--Albert Einstein

Longer Version:

The person who follows the crowd will usually go no further than the crowd. The person who walks alone is likely to find himself in places no one has ever seen before.


photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Learn from Yesterday, live for Today, hope for Tomorrow.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The real problem is in the hearts and minds of men. It is not a problem of physics but of ethics. It is easier to denature plutonium than to denature the evil from the spirit of man.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

For us physicists believe the separation between past, present, and future is only an illusion, although a convincing one.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The future is not a gift, it is an achievement.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Try not to become a person of success, but rather try to become a person of value.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The leaves and the light are one.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

This disgrace to civilization should be done away with at once. Heroism on command, senseless violence and all the loathsome nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Your imagination is your preview of life's coming attractions.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

If a cluttered desk is a sign of a cluttered mind. What then is an empty desk a sign of?

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The higher the buildings, the lower the morals.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Cosmic religiousness is the strongest and most noble driving force of scientific research.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The level of intelligence are 'Smart, Intelligent, Brilliant, Genius, Simple.'

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

E=mc2

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

It may affront the military-minded person to suggest a regime that does not maintain any military secrets.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Artificial intellegance is no match for natural stupidity.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Don't be too hard on me. Everyone has to sacrifice at the altar of stupidity from time to time.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Anonymity is no excuse for stupidity.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

For scientific endeavor is a natural whole the parts of which mutually support one another in a way which, to be sure, no one can anticipate.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

In the shadow of the atomic bomb it has become even more apparent that all men are, indeed, brothers.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Do things sound better in your head before you say them, or do you even run them through there first?

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The health of society thus depends quite as much on the independence of the individuals composing it as on their close political cohesion.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

That's my mathematician who examines problems which I put before him and checks their validity. You see, I am not myself a good mathematician.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The last thing to collapse is the surface.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The chicken did not cross the road. The road passed beneath the chicken.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Any society which does not insist upon respect for all life must necessarily decay.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

What you can count, doesn't count for much. What you cannot count, counts for everything.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

While it is true that an inherently free and scrupulous person may be destroyed, such an individual can never be enslaved or used as a blind tool.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

If I had known they were going to do this, I would have become a shoemaker.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

I get the most joy in life out of music.

--Albert Einstein

photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

People will not disarm step by step; they will disarm at one blow or not at all.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The world is so full of possibilities that dogmatism is simply indecent.

--Albert Einstein

photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Without ethical culture, there is no salvation for humanity.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

All of us who are concerned for peace and triumph of reason and justice must be keenly aware how small an influence reason and honest good will exert upon events in the political field.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The golden proportion is a scale of proportions which makes the bad difficult to produce and the good easy.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Gravity is a response to geometry.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Even if you have to go through hell -- go without hesitation.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

For an idea that does not first seem insane, there is no hope.

--Albert Einstein

photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

It would seem that men always need some idiotic fiction in the name of which they can hate one another. Once it was religion. Now it is the State.

--Albert Einstein

photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

I simply imagine it so, then go about to prove it.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

I have no extraordinary ability. I'm simply an inquisitive individual.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

My life is a simple thing that would interest no one. It is a known fact that I was born, and that is all that is necessary.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

If I am right the Germans will say I was a German, and the French will say I was a Jew; If I am wrong the Germans will say I was a Jew and the French will say I was a German.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Had I known that the Germans would not succeed in producing an atomic bomb, I would not have lifted a finger.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The only justification for our concepts and systems of concepts is that they serve to represent the complex of our experiences; beyond this they have not legitimacy.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

It is true that my parents were worried because I began to speak fairly late, so that they even consulted a doctor. I can't say how old I was -- but surely not less than three.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

I wish to do something Great and Wonderful, but I must start by doing the little things like they were Great and Wonderful.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Organized people are just too lazy to go looking for what they want.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Innovation is not the product of logical thought, even though the final product is tied to a logical structure.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

But then, after all, we are all alike, for we are all derived from the monkey.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

You have to color outside the lines once in a while if you want to make your life a masterpiece.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

It is a magnificent feeling to recognize the unity of complex phenomena which appear to be things quite apart from the direct visible truth.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

There is an atmosphere of well-sounding oratory that likes to attach itself to dress clothes. Away with it!

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Order is needed by the ignorant but it takes a genius to master chaos.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Mysticism is in fact the only criticism people cannot level against my theory.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

If I can't picture it, I can't understand it.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

He who cherishes the value of cultures cannot fail to be a pacifist.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

I am an absolute pacifist...It is an instinctive feeling. It is a feeling that possesses me, because the murder of men is disgusting.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

I have also considered many scientific plans during my pushing you around in your pram!

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Those who have the privilege to know have the duty to act.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

If I were not a Jew I would be a Quaker.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

A conviction akin to religious feeling of the rationality or intelligibility of the world lies behind all scientific work of a high order.

--Albert Einstein

photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Now to the term 'relativity theory.' I admit that it is unfortunate, and has given occasion to philosophical misunderstandings.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Out yonder there was this huge world...which stands before us like a great eternal riddle.

--Albert Einstein

Longer Version:

Out yonder there is this huge world, which exists independently of us human beings and which stands before us like a great, eternal riddle, at least partially accessible to our inspection and thinking.


photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

Don't become a seeker of success. Become a person of value.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

God is a scientist, not a magician.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

I would not think that philosophy and reason themselves will be man's guide in the foreseeable future; however, they will remain the most beautiful sanctuary they have always been for the select few.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

The next world war will be fought with stones.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

We Jews have no other means of self-defense than our solidarity.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

When I have one week to solve a seemingly impossible problem, I spend six days defining the problem. Then, the solution becomes obvious.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

It takes a different kind of thinking to solve a problem than the kind of thinking which produced the problem.

--Albert Einstein
photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

As long as I have any choice in the matter, I shall live only in a country where civil liberty, tolerance and equality of all citizens before the law prevail.

--Albert Einstein

photo of author Albert Einstein with quote

At present every coachman and every waiter argues about whether or not the relativity theory is correct.

--Albert Einstein

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