Let us be well persuaded that everyone of us possesses happiness in proportion to his virtue and wisdom, and according as he acts in obedience to their suggestion.
If, however, the poetic end might have been as well or better attained without sacrifice of technical correctness in such matters, the impossibility is not to be justified, since the description should be, if it can, entirely free from error.
It is true, indeed, that the account Plato gives in 'Timaeus' is different from what he says in his so-called 'unwritten teachings.'
The line between lawful and unlawful abortion will be marked by the fact of having sensation and being alive.
for desire is like a wild beast, and anger perverts rulers and the very best of men. Hence law is intelligence without appetition.
Wise people have an inward sense of what is beautiful, and the highest wisdom is to trust this intuition and be guided by it.
In cases of this sort, let us say adultery, rightness and wrongness do not depend on committing it with the right woman at the right time and in the right manner, but the mere fact of committing such action at all is to do wrong.
One kind of justice is that which is manifested in distributions of honour or money or the other things that fall to be divided among those who have a share in the constitution ... and another kind is that which plays a rectifying part in transactions.
When Simonides was discussing wisdom and riches with Hieron's wife, and she asked him which was better, to become wise or to become wealthy, he replied, 'To become wealthy. For I see the wise sitting on the doorsteps of the rich.
Any polis which is truly so called, and is not merely one in name, must devote itself to the end of encouraging goodness. Otherwise, political association sinks into a mere alliance.
The void is 'not-being,' and no part of 'what is' is a 'not-being,'; for what 'is' in the strict sense of the term is an absolute plenum. This plenum, however, is not 'one': on the contrary, it is a 'many' infinite in number and invisible owing to the minuteness of their bulk.
If some animals are good at hunting and others are suitable for hunting, then the Gods must clearly smile on hunting.
Why is it that all those who have become eminent in philosophy, politics, poetry, or the arts are clearly of an atrabilious temperament and some of them to such an extent as to be affected by diseases caused by black bile?
Happiness is thought to depend on leisure; for we are busy that we may have leisure, and make war that we may live in peace.
He is his own best friend and takes delight in privacy whereas the man of no virtue or ability is his own worst enemy and is afraid of solitude.
Since the things we do determine the character of life, no blessed person can become unhappy. For he will never do those things which are hateful and petty.
It is clear that there is some difference between ends: some ends are energeia energy, while others are products which are additional to the energeia.
Those that deem politics beneath their dignity are doomed to be governed by those of lesser talents.
Men regard it as their right to return evil for evil and, if they cannot, feel they have lost their liberty.
The beauty of the soul shines out when a man bears with composure one heavy mischance after another, not because he does not feel them, but because he is a man of high and heroic temper.
To give away money is an easy matter and in any man's power. But to decide to whom to give it and how large and when, and for what purpose and how, is neither in every man's power nor an easy matter.
He then alone will strictly be called brave who is fearless of a noble death, and of all such chances as come upon us with sudden death in their train.
Men acquire a particular quality by constantly acting a particular way... you become just by performing just actions, temperate by performing temperate actions, brave by performing brave actions.
Democracy arose from men's thinking that if they are equal in any respect they are equal absolutely.
It is also in the interests of the tyrant to make his subjects poor... the people are so occupied with their daily tasks that they have no time for plotting.
It is well said, then, that it is by doing just acts that the just man is produced, and by doing temperate acts the temperate man; without doing these no one would have even a prospect of becoming good.
I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who conquers his enemies, for the hardest victory is over self.
Between friends there is no need for justice, but people who are just still need the quality of friendship; and indeed friendliness is considered to be justice in the fullest sense.
Shipping magnate of the 20th century If women didn't exist, all the money in the world would have no meaning.
We have no evidence as yet about mind or the power to think; it seems to be a widely different kind of soul, differing as what is eternal from what is perishable; it alone is capable of existence in isolation from all other psychic powers.
We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence. But they hesitate, waiting for the other fellow to make the first move-and he, in turn, waits for you.
Democracy arose from men's thinking that if they are equal in any respect, they are equal absolutely.
The real difference between democracy and oligarchy is poverty and wealth. Wherever men rule by reason of their wealth, whether they be few or many, that is an oligarchy, and where the poor rule, that is a democracy.
Music directly represents the passions of the soul. If one listens to the wrong kind of music, he will become the wrong kind of person.
A courageous person is one who faces fearful things as he ought and as reason directs for the sake of what is noble.
All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth.
The man who is isolated, who is unable to share in the benefits of political association, or has no need to share because he is already self-sufficient, is no part of the polis, and must therefore be either a beast or a god.
You will never do anything in the world without courage. It is the greatest quality of the mind next to honor.
It is their character indeed that makes people who they are. But it is by reason of their actions that they are happy or the reverse.
Refraining from pleasure cultivates temperance, and it is through temperance that we can abstain from pleasure.
We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly.
But if nothing but soul, or in soul mind, is qualified to count, it is impossible for there to be time unless there is soul, but only that of which time is an attribute, i.e. if change can exist without soul.
No one would choose a friendless existence on condition of having all the other things in the world.
What the statesman is most anxious to produce is a certain moral character in his fellow citizens, namely a disposition to virtue and the performance of virtuous actions.
It is not once nor twice but times without number that the same ideas make their appearance in the world.
The duty of rhetoric is to deal with such matters as we deliberate upon without arts or systems to guide us, in the hearing of persons who cannot take in at a glance a complicated argument or follow a long chain of reasoning.
Hence poetry is something more philosophic and of graver import than history, since its statements are rather of the nature of universals, whereas those of history are singulars.
In making a speech one must study three points: first, the means of producing persuasion; second, the language; third the proper arrangement of the various parts of the speech.
A tyrant must put on the appearance of uncommon devotion to religion. Subjects are less apprehensive of illegal treatment from a ruler whom they consider god-fearing and pious. On the other hand, they do less easily move against him, believing that he has the gods on his side.
It is clearly better that property should be private, but the use of it common; and the special business of the legislator is to create in men this benevolent disposition.
Whether if soul did not exist time would exist or not, is a question that may fairly be asked; for if there cannot be someone to count there cannot be anything that can be counted, so that evidently there cannot be number; for number is either what has been, or what can be, counted.
The generality of men are naturally apt to be swayed by fear rather than reverence, and to refrain from evil rather because of the punishment that it brings than because of its own foulness.
Inferiors revolt in order that they may be equal, and equals that they may be superior. Such is the state of mind which creates revolutions.
Those who educate children well are more to be honored than they who produce them; for these only gave them life, those the art of living well.
I have gained this from philosophy: that I do without being commanded what others do only from fear of the law.
We praise a man who feels angry on the right grounds and against the right persons and also in the right manner at the right moment and for the right length of time.
Those who excel in virtue have the best right of all to rebel, but then they are of all men the least inclined to do so.
He who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god.
A statement is persuasive and credible either because it is directly self-evident or because it appears to be proved from other statements that are so.
A sense is what has the power of receiving into itself the sensible forms of things without the matter, in the way in which a piece of wax takes on the impress of a signet-ring without the iron or gold.
For as the eyes of bats are to the blaze of day, so is the reason in our soul to the things which are by nature most evident of all.
We become just by performing just action, temperate by performing temperate actions, brave by performing brave action.
We must no more ask whether the soul and body are one than ask whether the wax and the figure impressed on it are one.
Politicians also have no leisure, because they are always aiming at something beyond political life itself, power and glory, or happiness.
Some animals are cunning and evil-disposed, as the fox; others, as the dog, are fierce, friendly, and fawning. Some are gentle and easily tamed, as the elephant; some are susceptible of shame, and watchful, as the goose. Some are jealous and fond of ornament, as the peacock.
The true and the approximately true are apprehended by the same faculty; it may also be noted that men have a sufficient natural instinct for what is true, and usually do arrive at the truth. Hence the man who makes a good guess at truth is likely to make a good guess at probabilities.
The state comes into existence for the sake of life and continues to exist for the sake of good life.
Excellence is an art won by training and habituation. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.
Anybody can become angry -- that is easy, but to be angry with the right person and to the right degree and at the right time and for the right purpose, and in the right way -- that is not within everybody's power and is not easy.
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